Breeding apples

breeding apples In the wild, fairly easy to grow an apple tree from seed. However, like most perennial crops, apples are usually cultured asexually by grafting, because sprouts apple is a kind of "extreme heterozygotes", ie not inherited from the parent DNA to produce a new apple with the properties of the parent, and instead becomes different from its parent. [25] Most new apple cultivars as sprouts begin the life cycle that occurs by chance or are bred by crossing cultivars that have desirable characteristics. [26] Plants apples can also undergo genetic mutations in each branch of the tree. Some branches may develop into a mutated variant that is better than its parent stem. Some of them can even be regarded as a new type of apple tree.


Apple apple growers produce stronger through the process of crossing. [28] For example, since the 1930s, the Excelsior Experiment Station at the University of Minnesota has introduced an important stronger apple cultivars that are widely grown throughout the country of Minnesota and Wisconsin, both commercially and personally. Examples of new cultivars that are Haralson, Wealthy, Honeygold, and Honeycrisp.

Apples have been acclimatized in Ecuador at very high altitudes. In these areas, the apple fruit crops twice per year because of Khasiat Bunga kamboja the condition of mild throughout the year. [29]
Orchard Mason bee perched on a flower apple in British Columbia, Canada.

Apple tree must powdered cross to bear fruit. At each flowering season, apple growers provide pollinators to carry the pollen, like honey bees. Orchard Mason Bees also be used as an additional pollinators in commercial apple plantations. Sometimes, the queen wasp beetle is present in plantations, but not transport sufficient quantities to be important pollinators.

Apple trees are four to seven pollination groups depending on climate:

     Group A - Early flowering, May 1 to 3 in England (Gravenstein, Red Astrachan)
     Group B - May 4 to 7 (idared, McIntosh)
     Group C - Mid-season flowering, May 8 to 11 (Granny Smith, Cox's Orange Pippin)
     Group D - Flowering middle / end of the season, 12 to May 15 (Golden Delicious, Calville Blanc d'hiver)
     Group E - Flowering end of the season, 16 to May 18 (Braeburn, Reinette d'Orléans)
     Group F - May 19 to 23 (Suntan)
     Group H - May 24 to 28 (Court-Pendu fat)

One cultivar can be powdered by a compatible cultivar from the same group or close to (A with A, or A with B, but not A with C or D).

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